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2011年08月07日

映画【Youtube】《TRANSCRIPT》『アッシュによる実験』【Youtube】Asch Experiments

◇『アッシュによる実験』【Youtube】◇=


1: 5、6人のサクラに混じり「線の長さの認識をする実験だ」と偽り、たった一人の被験者がどう対応するかを実験したもの。
最初の数回ではサクラ皆が正解を答えるのだが、以後サクラ全員は故意に誤回答をする。間違えと解っていても、被験者は他の回答者達と同様の間違った回答を発する様になった。

http://youtu.be/qA-gbpt7Ts8


Narrator:   The Asch Experiment is one of the psychologists' oldest and the most popular pieces of the research. 

  A volunteer is told that he's taking part in a visual perception test.

What he doesn't know is that the other participants are the actors, and he's the only person taking part in the real test, which is actually about the group conformity.

Experimenter: "The experiment you'll be taking part in today involves a perception of line-length. 
                          The tast will be simply to look at the lines here on the left, & and indicate which of the three lines on the right is equal to in length.  
                         So for example...."

Narrator:  The actors have been told to match the wrong lines.
The volunteer will be monitored to see if he gives the correct answer, or if he goes along with the opinions of the group, and gives the wrong answer.

In the first test, the correct answer is 2...

Actors:  "One...... ... ... "  (x3)
The volunteer: " It's two...!"
Actor: "One."


Narrator:  "Once again, the correct answer is 2...

Actors: "Three... ... ... " (x3)
Volunteer : "(after a long pause...) ...Three..???"
Actor: "Three."


The Asch experiment has been repeated many times and the results have been (errr) supported again and again,
We will conform to the group.
 Again we're very social creatures.
We're very much aware of what people around us think.
Err...we want to be liked, we don't want to be seen to've rocked the boat, so we'll go along with the group EVEN IF WE DON'T BELIEVE WHAT PEOPLE ARE SAYING, we still go along.

Actors:  "One... "
The volunteer: "One..."
Actor: "One."

Group Dynamic is one of the most powerful forces in human psychology.

Actors:  "Errr, One. "
The volunteer: "One."


Ash Experiment  (2/2)
ここでは、もう一人正確な回答をする人物を加える。[2:25辺り]
そこで、被験者は正確な回答を継続し、誤った回答に屈しなくなる。
「この『絶対多数』が一度パンクすると、統制力が急速に落ちる。」



《以下、転載》[強調emphasis=私による]
Uploaded by
on 12 May 2010
Asch conformity experiments
The Asch conformity experiments were a series of studies published in the 1950s that demonstrated the power of conformity in groups. These are also known as the "Asch Paradigm".

Introduction
Experiments led by Solomon Asch asked groups of students to participate in a "vision test." In reality, all but one of the participants were confederates of the experimenter, and the study was really about how the remaining students would react to the confederates' behavior.

Method
In the basic Asch paradigm, the participants − the real subjects and the confederates − were all seated in a classroom. They were asked a variety of questions about the lines such as how long is A, compare the length of A to an everyday object, which line was longer than the other, which lines were the same length, etc. The group was told to announce their answers to each question out loud. The confederates always provided their answers before the study participant, and always gave the same answer as each other. They answered a few questions correctly but eventually began providing incorrect responses.

In a control group, with no pressure to conform to an erroneous view, only one subject out of 35 ever gave an incorrect answer.
Solomon Asch hypothesized that the majority of people would not conform to something obviously wrong; however, when surrounded by individuals all voicing an incorrect answer, participants provided incorrect responses on a high proportion of the questions (32%).
Seventy-five percent of the participants gave an incorrect answer to at least one question.

Results
Variations of the basic paradigm tested how many confederates were necessary to induce conformity, examining the influence of just 1 confederate and as many as 15 confederates. Results indicate that 1 confederate has virtually no influence and 2 confederates have only a small influence. When 3 or more confederates are present, the tendency to conform is relatively stable.

The unanimity of the confederates has also been varied. When the confederates are not unanimous in their judgment, even if only 1 confederate voices a different opinion, participants are much more likely to resist the urge to conform than when the confederates all agree. This finding illuminates the power that even a small dissenting minority can have. Interestingly, this finding holds whether or not the dissenting confederate gives the correct answer. As long as the dissenting confederate gives an answer that is different from the majority, participants are more likely to give the correct answer.

One difference between the Asch conformity experiments and the Milgram experiment as carried out by Stanley Milgram (also famous in social psychology) is that the subjects of these studies attributed their performance to their own misjudgment and "poor eyesight", while those in the Milgram experiment blamed the experimenter in explaining their behavior. Conformity may be much less salient than authority pressure.

The Asch experiments may provide some vivid empirical evidence relevant to some of the ideas raised in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (see 2 + 2 = 5). This also helps illustrate the concept of "point at a deer and call it a horse"

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2: エレベーターに5、6人のサクラと乗り合わせ、サクラが全員後ろ向きに立つ。すると被験者もじわじわと立ち変えて同じ方向を向く事を証明する実験:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B738X-ibz2o
 
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